Activities are grouped and described under eight work packages (WP). These consist of six research WPs (WP2-7) complemented with a work package on project management (WP1) and another one on capacity building, dissemination and end-user involvement (WP8). In addition, several cross-cutting processes will be considered throughout all WP's, as shown on the left of the WP scheme. Integrated cross-cutting processes are divided in two groups: one on socio-cultural aspects and a second group on institutional capacity and ownership. This logical sequence is indicated in the work package flow chart given below (Figure 4), and is also reflected in the timelines occupied by the different work packages, as indicated in the project Gantt Chart of Section 1.3.4. and the work package description of Section 1.3.5.
WP1 will implement an efficient and effective project management and coordination. It includes reporting to the European Commission, facilitation internal and external communication, performing a quality control check on project outputs and manage the project budget. Under WP1, also potential conflicts are moderated and cultural and gender issues assessed.
In WP2, a multi-disciplinary assessment of the context will be done for the case studies (as shown in Figure 4) across sectors, scales and disciplines. For those disciplines where no or insufficient information is available (see backbone projects, chapter 3), a rapid assessment will be done at the case study level based on a range of well-developed and tested tools for rapid assessment such as those developed by ICRAF and IWMI for multi-functional landscapes, many of them are community-based. It will result in an analysis of opportunities and constraints for landscape functioning, livelihood and culture and institutional arrangements. The latter includes the reason behind the often insufficient enforcement and implementation of environmental policies at the meso-scale. For this purpose, a participatory review is done of the prevailing policies and action plans such as local development plans, National Adaptation Programs for Action (NAPA), food security strategies, nature conservation plans, and water resources management plans, etc. Finally, WP2 will assess the potential of novel, though internationally widely accepted concepts for operational management, including "ecosystem goods and services" and "vulnerability and adaptation".
Based on these priorities, WP3 to WP5 will look into specific tools groups. WP3 will look into strategies for restoration and adaptation of ecosystem goods and services, WP4 focuses then on economic tools and (non-monetary) incentives to do so while WP5 will work on tools for spatial planning and spatially-explicit impact assessment to implement the strategies for restoration and adaptation of WP3. Important instruments herewith are maps visualizing resources, conflicts and impacts. Maps are proven instruments to facilitate a stakeholder dialogue, to discuss conflicting issues and to inform decision-makers. Mapping efforts include ecosystem goods and services (WP2, 3, 5), livelihood mapping (WP5) and vulnerability mapping (WP6). WP6 gives specific attention to the assessment of vulnerability to global change and, in close cooperation with WP3-WP5, development of operational strategies for adaptation and reduction of vulnerability to global change. Especially in Africa, climate change is only one (though a very important) aspect of global change. Given the large impact on livelihood, scenarios of other aspects of global change such as demographic growth, land use change and socio-economic development will assessed as well at the meso-scale. For this purpose, meso-scale scenarios are developed based on a combination of community-based vulnerability assessment and downscaling of global change simulations (IPCC and SRES scenarios). Through close interaction with WP3-WP5, the impacts of global change scenarios on landscape and livelihood are assessed, and considered as key elements for the identification of adaptation strategies and planning instruments.
Despite the different, though interlinked content, the work packages WP3-WP6 will follow a similar implementation pathway. Firstly, a review is made of the available tools, strategies and processes. In a next step, opportunities and challenges are identified as well as the requirements for effective implementation of strategies and tools. After matching the above, promising tools and strategies are selected, adapted to the requirements for sub-national INRM and tested at the case study. As will described below (see 'case study driven approach'), work in WP3-WP6 will be integrated with the main objective to achieve an integrated set of tools and strategies which fit prevailing policies and which contributes to the implementation of case study priorities.
WP7 has multiple phases. In order to maximize the inter-comparison between case studies, in WP7, from the inception phase, guidance on the setup and harmonization of concrete case study work plans is provided without loosing the case study specific focus and associated flexibility. Experience to do so is gained from two FP7 'twinning' projects in which the coordinator has a key involvement, namely WETwin and Twin2Go. In the next phase, WP7 will develop the operational framework and concept of the toolbox, which is applied and adapted to the case-study context in close cooperation with WP3-WP6. The operational framework will develop approaches to address issues of multi-level decision-making, uptake and ownership of tools and strategies, empowerment of sub-national authorities and better cooperation, exchange of information by authorities and communities. Furthermore, WP7 will develop methodologies to evaluate the operational performance of tools and strategies for natural resources management based on their suitability (fit-for-purpose), sustainability, cultural acceptance, impact on livelihood and landscape functioning and cost-effectiveness. In a final phase, WP7 serves as a synthesis WP and will compile the tools and strategies into the toolbox. WP7 will also draw lessons and provide practical guidance for case-study end-users and as well for international platforms and institutes (in cooperation with WP8).
WP8 finally will focus on dissemination, capacity building and end-user involvement. It will apply the communication and dissemination methodologies developed in WP7. The main expected outcome is the empowerment of sub-national authorities through the adoption of new tools and strategies for natural resources management, multi-faceted capacity building, institutional development, strong stakeholder engagement and improved instruments for cooperation and communication between authorities across sectors and scales and communities. An important outcome of WP8 is the aim to integrate the project's outcomes in the short- to long-term work plans of both case study authorities and institutes as well as international platforms and institutes. Although the latter is challenging, an effective impact of AFROMAISON is expected both at case study level and with international platforms and institutions given the strong networks of the consortium at international, national, sub-national and local scale. In addition to the networks and dissemination products of the consortium partners, additional networking and capacity building will be provided in order to spread the outcomes of AFROMAISON further.